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<a style="display:none;position:fixed;" href="#here">here</a>

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<div id="header">John Appleseed<br/>10/17/17<br/>AMSCO Chapter 14<br/>An Unsettled World</div>

<div style="float:left;display:inline-block;padding:13px 13px;height:23px;width:24px;border:1px solid #ddd;text-align:center">OCT<br>17</div><h1 style="width:520px;margin-left:51px;">Rethinking history and Reimagining Nations between 1890 and 1914
<li>most deaths of all US wars; most destructive in Western Hemisphere; 620,000 deaths</li>
<li>4 million people freed from slavery; war also transformed society by speeding up industrialization/modernization in North & largely destroying South's plantation system</li>
<li>changes were so big that some historians refer to the war as 2nd American Revolution</li>

<h2><div style="border-right:1px solid #ddd;display:inline-block;margin-top:-5px;margin-bottom:-5px;padding:5px 8px 5px 2px;margin-right:5px">I</div> Beginning of War</h2>

<li>when Lincoln became first Repub pres. in March 1861, it wasn't clear that he'd employ military means to challenge secession of SC & other states</li>
<li>in inaugural address, Lincoln told southerners he wouldn't interfere w/slavery</li>

<h3>Fort Sumter</h3>
<li>political threat of war was status of 2 forts in South held by fed. troops but claimed by seceded states</li>
<li>Ft. Sumter (Charleston harbor) was cut off from vital supplies/reinforcements</li>
<li>rather than either giving up Ft. Sumter or attempting to defend, Lincoln announced he was sending provisions of food to small federal garrison</li>
<li>gave SC choice of permitting Ft. to hold out or opening fire w/shore batteries</li>
<li>Southern guns thundered their reply and on Apr. 12, 1861, the war began</li>
<li>attack on Ft. Sumter & capture after 2 days of incessant pounding united most northerners behind patriotic fight to save the Union</li>

<h4>Lincoln's use of executive power</h4>
<li>more than previous presidents, Lincoln unexpectedly used powers as chief executive & commander in chief, often w/o Congress authorization</li>
 <li>demonstrated in Ft. Sumter crisis by <span>1</span> calling 75,000 volunteers to quell southern revolt <span>2</span> authorizing spending for war <span>3</span> suspending habeas corpus </li>

<h3>Secession of Upper South</h3>
<li>before attack on Ft. Sumter, only 7 Deep South states had seceded</li>
<li>after it became clear that Lincoln would use troops in the crisis, 4 states of Upper South (VA, NC, TN, AR) also seceded & joined CSA</li>
<li>capital of CSA was then moved to Richmond, VA</li>
<li>people of western Virginia remained loyal to the Union, and the region became a separate state in 1863</li>
<h3>Keeping Border States in the Union</h3></li>
<li>DE, MD, MO, and KY might've seceded, but instead remained in Union</li>
<li>staying was partly due to Union sentiment & of shrewd federal policies</li>
<li>in MD, pro-secessionists attacked Union troops, threatened railroad to WA</li>
<li>Union army resorted to martial law to keep state under federal control</li>
<li>in MO, presence of US troops prevented pro-South beliefs from gaining control; guerrilla forces sympathetic to the Confederation were active during the war</li>
<li>in KY, state legislature voted to remain neutral in the conflict</li>
<li>Lincoln initially respected neutrality & waited for South to violate it first</li>
<li>keeping border states in was a primary military/political goal for Lincoln</li>
<li>losing them would've increased CSA population by more than 50%, severely weakened North's strategic position for conducting the war</li>

<div style="position:absolute;font-family:calibri;font-size:8px;text-transform:uppercase;margin-left:304px;margin-top:64px;border:1px solid #000;height:53px;width:10px;padding:69px 5px 0px 5px;"><div style="-webkit-transform:rotate(270deg);">military</div></div>
<div style="position:absolute;font-family:calibri;font-size:8px;text-transform:uppercase;margin-left:304px;margin-top:187px;border:1px solid #000;height:51px;width:10px;padding:71px 5px 0px 5px;"><div style="-webkit-transform:rotate(270deg);">economic</div></div>
<div style="position:absolute;font-family:calibri;font-size:8px;text-transform:uppercase;margin-left:304px;margin-top:310px;border:1px solid #000;height:51px;width:10px;padding:71px 5px 0px 5px;"><div style="-webkit-transform:rotate(270deg);">political</div></div>

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<p align="center">WARTIME ADVANTAGES</p>

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<td style="padding:0px;width:148px;height:10px;border-bottom:0px;border-right:0px"><p align="center" style="margin-top:-5px;margin-bottom:-5px;">NORTH</p></td>
<td style="padding:0px;width:158px;height:10px;border-bottom:0px;"><p align="center">SOUTH</li></td>


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<p align="center" style="-webkit-transform:rotate(270deg);">MILITARY</p>

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<li>population 22 million (vs. 5 million) </li>
<li>800k immigrants in large numbers enlisted to Union cuase </li>
<li>emancipation allowed 180K+ black ppl into army </li>
<li>loyal US Navy </li>

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<li>had to move troops/ supplies shorter distance, while north would have to conquer an area the size of western Europe</li>
<li>long/uneven coastline difficult to blockade</li>
<li>experienced military leaders</li>


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<li>controlled most banking/ capital </li>
<li>85% of factories/ manufact-ured goods </li>
<li>70% of railroads </li>
<li>65% of farmlands </li>
<li>skills of clerks/bookkeepers gave logistical support </li>

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<li>hoped overseas demand for cotton would bring recognition, financial aid </li>


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<li>well-established central govt (ironically, south needed strong central govt w/strong public support to win a war that was being fought over states' rights) </li>
<li>experienced politicians with a strong popular base </li>

<td style="width:138px;height:75px;">
<li>motivation because of want for independence </li>

<li>not wanting to alienate Unionists in border states, Lincoln was reluctant to push for early emancipation</li>
<h3 style="display:inline-block;width:270px;">Confederate States of America</h3>
<li>CSA constitution modeled after US Constitution </li>
<li>nonsuccessive 6-year pres/VP </li>
<li>Congress couldn't levy protective tariff/appropriate funds for internal improvement, prohibited foreign slave trade </li>
<li>Pres. Jefferson Davis tried to increase executive powers during war, but southern governors resisted attempts at centralization; some withheld       men/resources to protect their own states </li>
<li>VP Alexander H. Stephens, in defense of states' rights, urged      secession of GA in response to actions of CSA govt</li>
<li>CSA always faced serious shortage of money </li>
<li>tried loans, income taxes (including 10% tax on farm produce), even impressment of private property, but those revenues paid for only a small part of war's costs </li>
<li>CSA govt was forced to issue > $1 billion in inflationary paper money, which reduced CSA dollar value to less than 2 cents by end of the war (LMAO) </li>
<li>CSA congress nationalized railroads & encouraged industrial development </li>
<li>CSA sustained ~ 1 million troops at its peak, but war of attrition doomed it </li>
<li>real surprise is that South was able to persist for 4 years </li>
<h2><div style="border-right:1px solid #ddd;display:inline-block;margin-top:-5px;margin-bottom:-5px;padding:5px 6px 5px 0px;margin-right:5px">II</div> First Years of a Long War: 1861-1862</h2>
<li>Northerners at first expected war to last ~ a few weeks; Lincoln gave first volunteers enlistment period of only 90 days </li>
<li>"on to Richmond!" was the optimistic cry, but as Americans soon learned, it would take ~ 4 years of fighting before north finally marched into CSA capital </li>
<h4>First Battle of Bull Run <em style="text-transform:none">July 1861</em></h4>
<li>in first major battle of war 30,000 federal troops marched from DC to attack CSA forces positioned near Bull Run Creek @ Manassas Junction, VA </li>
<li>just as Union forces seemed close to victory, CSA reinforcements under Gen. Thomas (Stonewall) Jackson countered & sent inexperienced Union troops in disorderly/panicky flight back to DC w/civilian curiosity-seekers & picnickers </li>
<li>battle ended illusion of short war & also promoted myth that Rebels were invincible in battle </li>
<h4>Union strategy</h4>
<li>General-in-Chief Winfield Scott, veteran of 1812 & Mexican wars, 3-part strategy </li>
<li>use US navy to blockade southern ports (Anaconda Plan) </li>
<li>divide CSA in two by taking control of Mississippi River </li>
<li>raise and train an army 500,000 strong to take Richmond (harder to achieve) </li>
<li>after Union's defeat @ Bull Run, Union experienced many crushing defeats while attempting various campaigns in VA, gradually becoming less successful </li>

<h4>Peninsula campaign <em style="text-transform:none">March 1862</em></h4>
<li>Gen. George B. McClellan, new commander of Union army in the East, insisted that troops be given long period of training/discipline before going into battle; after delays, McClellan's army invaded VA </li>
<li>Union army was stopped as result of brilliant tactical moves by CSA Gen. Robert E. Lee, who emerged as commander of South's eastern forces </li>
<li>after 5 months, McClellan forced to retreat and ordered back to Potomac; replaced by Gen. John Pope </li>

<h4>Second Battle of Bull Run</h4>
<li>Lee took advantage of Union General change to strike quickly @ Pope's army in northern VA; drew Pope into a trap, then struck enemy's flank, sent Union army backward to Bull Run; Pope withdrew to DC </li>
<h4>Antietam <em style="text-transform:none">September 1862</em></h4> 
<li>following victory @ Bull Run, Lee led army across Potomac into northern MD </li>
<li>hoped that major CSA victory in North would convince GB to give official recognition & support to the CSA </li>
<li>Lincoln had restored McClellan to command of Union arm </li>
<li>McClellan knew Lee's battle plan because a copy of it had been dropped accidentally by a CSA officer</li>
<li>Union army intercepted invading CSA @ Antietam Creek in Sharpsburg, MD </li>
<li>bloodiest single day of combat in the war; 22,000 men killed/wounded </li>
<li>Lee's army retreated to VA; disappointed w/McClellan for failing to pursue Lee's weakened & retreating army, Lincoln removed him again as Union commander </li>
<li>pres. complained that his Gen. had a "bad case of the slows" </li>
<li>while technically a draw, Antietam in the long run proved to be a decisive battle; it stopped the CSA from getting foreign recognition/aid they needed </li>
<li>Lincoln used partial triumph to announce plans for Emancipation Proclamation </li>
<h4>Fredericksburg <em style="text-transform:none">December 1862</em></h4>
<li>replacing McClellan w/the more aggressive Gen. Ambrose Burnside, Lincoln discovered strategy of reckless attack could have even worse consequences than McClellan's strategy of caution/inaction </li>
<li>large Union army under Burnside attacked Lee's army in Fredericksburg, VA: 12,000 dead or wounded compared to 5,000 CSA casualties </li>
<li>US/CSA Gen.s were slow to learn that improved weaponry, esp. deadly fire from enemy artillery, were bad </li>
<li>by end of 1862, truth was clear: no prospect of military victory for either side </li>

<h4>Monitor vs. Merrimac <em style="text-transform:none">March 1862</em></h4>
<li>Northern hope to win depended on ability to maximize economic/naval advent-ages by shutting down South's sources of supply </li>
<li>establishing blockade of southern ports (Anaconda Plan) was crucial </li>
<li>during McClellan's Peninsula campaign, North's blockade strategy was jeapordized by CSA ironclad <em>Merrimac</em> (former Union ship, rebuilt & renamed the Virginia) that could attack/sink Union's wooden ships almost at will </li>
<li>Union navy countered w/ironclad <em>Monitor</em>, which fought 5-hr duel w/<em>Merrimac</em> near Hampton Roads, VA, March 1862 </li>
<li>battle ended in a draw, but Monitor was stronger than South's ironclad </li>
<li>duel was also important bc the 2 ironclads destroying wooden sailing ships revolutionized future of naval warfare </li>

<h4>Grant in the West</h4>
<li>battle of ironclads occurred about the same time as far bloodier encounter in western TN, CSA state </li>
<li>North's campaign for control of Miss. River was partly under command of West Point grad Ulysses S. Grant, who joined after unsuccessful civilian career </li>
<li>striking south from IL early 1862, Grant used gunboats & army maneuvers to capture Ft. Henry & Ft. Donelson on Cumberland River (branch of Mississippi) </li>
<li>these victories, in which 14,000 CSA were taken prisoner, opened up state of Miss. to Union attack </li>
<li>few weeks later, CSA army under Albert Johnston surprised Grant @ Shiloh, TN, but Union army held ground & finally forced CSA to retreat after terrible losses on both sides (23,000+ dead/wounded) </li>
<li>Grant's drive down Miss. was complemented April 1862 when David Farragut captured New Orleans</li>
<h2><div style="border-right:1px solid #ddd;display:inline-block;margin-top:-5px;margin-bottom:-5px;margin-left:-2px;padding:5px 6px 5px 0px;letter-spacing:0px;margin-right:5px">III</div> Foreign Affairs & Diplomacy</h2>
<li>South's hopes for securing independence hinged on diplomats/soldiers </li>
<li>CSA leaders expected cotton to prove to be "king" & induce GB/FR to help south </li>
<li>wealthy Brit. industrialists & Brit. aristocrats depended on southern cotton & looked forward to breakup of USA </li>
<li>from North's POV, it was important to prevent CSA from gaining foreign support </li>

<h3>Trent Affair <em style="text-transform:none">late 1861</em></h3>
<li>CSA diplomats James Mason & John Slidell were traveling to England on British steamer, <em>Trent</em> </li>
<li>Union warship stopped British ship, removed Mason & Slidell, brought them to US as P.O.W. </li>
<li>GB threatened war over incident unless diplomats were released </li>
<li>Lincoln faced severe public criticism for doing so, but gave in </li>
<li>Mason/Slidell were set free, but still failed to obtain full recognition of CSA </li>
<h3>CSA Raiders</h3>
<li>South got enough support to purchase commerce-raiders from British shipyards </li>
<li>the <em>Alabama</em> captured over 60 vessels before being sunk off coast of FR by Union </li>
<li>after war, GB agreed to pay US $15.5 million for Southern damages (lmao) </li>
<li>learning that CSA arranged to buy Laird rams (ships w/iron rams) from GB against blockade, US-GB Charles Francis Adams persuaded British govt to cancel sale rather than risk war w/US </li>

<h3>Failure of Cotton Diplomacy</h3>
<li>cotton didn't have power to get foreign help, since Eur. quickly found substitutes</li>
<li>by the time southern cotton died down in Brit. textile industry, shipments of cotton began arriving from Egypt/India</li>
<li>non-cotton fabric could be used for textiles; woolen & linen industries weren't slow to take advantage of their opportunity</li>
<li>Gen. Lee's setback @ Antietam averted GB; w/o decisive CSA victory, British govt wouldn't risk involvement</li>
<li>Emancipation Proclamation (Jan. 1863) made end of slavery Northern objective, which appealed strongly to GB's working class</li>
<li>conservative GB leaders were sympathetic to South but couldn't defy pronorthern/antislavery feelings of Brit. majority</li>

<h2><div style="border-right:1px solid #ddd;display:inline-block;margin-top:-5px;margin-bottom:-5px;margin-left:-2px;padding:5px 6px 5px 0px;letter-spacing:0px;margin-right:5px">IV</div> The End of Slavery</h2>
<li>in 1850s, Lincoln spoke against slavery; seemed hesitant to take action bc of Repub supporters</li>
<li>his concerns included <span>1</span> keeping border state support <span>2</span> constitutional protection of slavery <span>3</span> the prejudice s of many northerners <span>4</span> fear that premature action could be overturned in next election</li>
<li>slaves were freed during war bc of military events, govt policy, and their own actions</li>
 <h3>Confiscation Acts</h3>
<li>early in war (May 1861), Union Gen. Benjamin Butler refused to return captured slaves to CSA owners, arguing that they were "contraband of war"</li>
<li>power to seize enemy property used to wage war against US was legal basis for first Confiscation Act passed by Congress Aug. 1861</li>
<li>soon after passage, thousands of "contrabands" were escaping slavery by finding their way into Union camps</li>
<li>July 1862 second Confiscation Act was passed that freed slaves of rebels</li>
<li>act empowered pres. to use freed slaves in Union army</li>

<h3>Emancipation Proclamation</h3>
<li>by July 1862 Lincoln already decided to use powers as commander in chief to free all slaves in states at war w/US</li>
<li>called policy a "military necessity;" delayed announcement until he could win support of conservative northerners</li>
<li>also encouraged border states to come up w/plans for emancipating slaves w/compensation to owners</li>
<li>after Battle of Antietam, Sept. 22, 1862, Lincoln issued warning that slaves in rebel states on Jan. 1, 1863 would be "then, thenceforward, and forever free"</li>
<li>on the first day of the new year, 1863, pres. issued Emancipation Proclamation</li>
<li>after listing rebel states, proclamation stated: </li>

<h4>Consequences </h4>
<li>proclamation applied only to slaves residing in CSA states</li>
<li>slavery in border states was allowed</li>
<li>it commited US govt to policy of abolition in the South, and enlarged the purpose of the war</li>
<li>now Union armies were fighting against slavery, in addition to secession and rebellion</li>
<li>proclamation gave added weight to Confiscation acts, increasing # of slaves who fled to Union lines</li>
<li>w/each advance of northern troops into South, more slaves were liberated</li>
<li>proclamation also authorized recruitment of freed slaves as Union soldiers</li>
<img style="width:300px;float:right;" src="https://31.media.tumblr.com/ca019582ae687c2b8a1b0e52aa74f45c/tumblr_inline_nglm4qMssn1sr8w60.png" />
<h3>Thirteenth Amendment</h3>
<li>obstructing full emancipation were phrases in US Constitution that seemed to legitimize slavery</li>
<li>to free border state slaves, constitutional amendment was needed</li>
<li>Lincoln played active role in political struggle to get enough of Congress to pass 13th Amendment</li>
<li>by Dec. 1865 (after Lincoln's death), amendment abolishing slavery was ratified</li>
<h3>Freedmen in the War</h3>
<li>after Emancipation Proclamation (Jan. 1863), hundreds of thousands of southern blacks (~ &#188; of slave population) walked away from slavery to seek protection of approaching Union armies</li>
<li>almost 200K black ppl, most newly freed slaves, served in Union army/navy</li>
<li>segregated into all-black units, such as Mass. 54th Regiment, black troops had courage & won respect of northern white soldiers</li>
<li>37K+ black soldiers died in Army of Freedom </li>

<h2><div style="border-right:1px solid #ddd;display:inline-block;margin-top:-5px;margin-bottom:-5px;margin-left:-2px;padding:5px 6px 5px 0px;letter-spacing:0px;margin-right:5px">V</div> The Union Triumphs, 1863-1865</h2>
<li>by beginning of 1863,  fortunes of war  turned against South</li>
<li>Gen. Robert E. Lee started year w/another major victory @ Chancellorsville, VA, but CSA economy was in desperate shape, southern planters/farmers were losing control of slave-labor force, and increasing # of poorly provisioned soldiers were deserting CSA army</li>

<h3>Turning Point <em style="text-transform:none">July 1864</em></h3>
<h4>Vicksburg </h4>
<li>in West, by spring 1863, Union forces controlled New Orleans & most of Miss. River/surrounding valley</li>
<li>Union objective of securing complete control of Miss. River was close to accomplished fact when Gen. Grant began siege of heavily fortified Vicksburg, Miss.</li>
<li>Union artillery bombarded Vicksburg for 7 weeks before CSA finally surrendered city and ~ 29K soldiers on July 4</li>
<li>federal warships now controlled full length of Miss. & cut off TX, LA, AR from rest of CSA</li>

<h4>Gettysburg <em style="text-transform:none">July 1, 1863</em></h4>
<li>meanwhile, in East, Lee again took offensive by leading army into enemy territory: Union states MD/Pennsylvania</li>
<li>if he could destroy a Union army or capture major northern city, Lee hoped to force North to call for peace, or gain foreign intervention for South</li>
<li>invading southern army surprised Union units @ Gettysburg in southern PA<li>
<li>most crucial battle of the war and the bloodiest, with 50K+ casualties</li>
<li>Lee's assault on Union lines on 2nd/3rd days, including Pickett's charge, proved futile, & destroyed good part of CSA army</li>
<li>remainder of CSA soldiers retreated to VA, never to regain offensive</li>

<h3>Grant in Command</h3>
<li>in early 1864 Lincoln brought Grant east to VA & made him commander of all Union armies</li>
<li>Grant's approach to ending war was simply to outlast Lee by fighting war of attrition</li>
<li>recognizing that South's resources were dwindling, he aimed to wear down southern armies & systematically destroy vital lines of supply</li>
<li>fighting doggedly for months, Grant's Army of the Potomac suffered heavier casualties than Lee's forces in battles the Wilderness, Spotsylvania, Cold Harbor</li>
<li>by persevering, Grant succeeded in reducing Lee's army in each battle & forcing it into defensive line around Richmond</li>
<li>in final stage of Civil War, fighting foreshadowed trench warfare that would later characterize WWI</li>
<li>no longer was a war "between gentlemen" but modern "total" war against civilians as well as soldiers</li>

<h4>Sherman's March <span style="font-style:normal;font-size:10px">Nov. 15 - Dec. 21 1864</span></h4></li>
<li>chief instrument of Grant's aggressive tactics for subduing South was hardened veteran Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman</li>
<li>leading force of 100K men, Sherman set out from Chattanooga, TN, on destruction campaign that went clear across state of GA and then swept north into SC</li>
<li>Sherman was pioneer of tactics of total war; marching relentlessly through GA, troops destroyed everything in path</li>
<li>burned cotton fields, barns, houses &mdash; everything enemy might use to survive</li>
<li>Sherman took ATL Sept. 1864 in time to help Lincoln's prospects for reelection. He marched into Savannah in December and completed his campaign in February 1865 by setting fire to Columbia, the capital of SC and cradle of secession. </li>
<li>Sherman's march had intended effect - helped break will of CSA and destroyed will to fight on</li>

<h4>Election of 1864 </h4>
<li>Democrat nominee for pres. was popular Gen. George McClellan</li>
<li>Dem platform calling for peace had wide appeal among millions of voters who had grown weary of war</li>
<li>Repubs renamed party the Unionist party as way of attracting votes of "War Democrats" (those who disagreed w/Dem platform)</li>
<li>brief "ditch-Lincoln" movement fizzled out, & Repub/Unionist convention again chose Lincoln as its candidate, and loyal War Democrat from TN, Sen. Andrew Johnson, as running mate</li>
<li>Lincoln-Johnson won 212 electoral votes to Democrats' 21; popular vote was much closer - McClellan got 45%</li>

<h3>End of the War</h3>
<li>effects of Union blockade, combined w/Sherman's march of destruction, spread hunger in South in winter 1864-1865</li>
<li>on the battlefront in VA, Grant continued to outflank Lee's lines until they collapsed around Petersburg, resulting in fall of Richmond (Apr. 3, 1865)</li>

<h4>Surrender at Appomattox </h4>
<li>CSA govt tried to negotiate for peace, but Lincoln wanted restoration of Union & Jefferson Davis wanted independence</li>
<li>Lee retreated from Richmond w/army of ~ 30,000 men; tried to escape to mountains but got cut off & forced to surrender to Grant @ Appomattox Court House Apr. 9, 1865</li>
<li>Grant and allowed Lee's men to return to their homes with their horses</li>

<h4>Assassination of Lincoln <span style="font-style:normal">April 14, 1864-1865</span></h4>
<li>only a month before Lee's surrender, Lincoln delivered second inaugural address</li>
<li>urged that defeated South be treated benevolently</li>
<li>Apr. 14, John Wilkes Booth, embittered actor/southern sympathizer, killed the pres. while he was attending a performance in Ford's Theater in Wash</li>
<li>on same night, coconspirator wounded Sec. of State William Seward</li>
<h2><div style="border-right:1px solid #ddd;display:inline-block;margin-top:-5px;margin-bottom:-5px;margin-left:-2px;padding:5px 6px 5px 0px;letter-spacing:0px;margin-right:5px">VI</div> Effects of the war on Civilians</h2>

<h3>Political Change</h3>
<li>electoral process continued during the war w/surprisingly few restrictions</li>
<li>secession of southern states had created Repub majorities in both houses of Congress</li>
<li>within Repub ranks, there were sharp differences b/w radicals (immediate abolitionists) and moderates (Free-Soilers concerned abt economic opportunities for whites)</li>
<li>most Dems supported war but criticized Lincoln's conduct of it</li>
<li>peace Democrats/Copperheads opposed war & wanted negotiated peace</li>
<li>most notorious Copperhead, Congressman Clement L. Vallandigham of OH, was briefly banished from US to Canada for "treasonable," pro-CSA speeches against the war </li>
<h4>Civil liberties</h4>
<li>in wartime, govts are usually concerned w/prosecuting war than protecting citizens' constitutional rights.</li>
<li>early in war, Lincoln suspended writ of habeas corpus in MD & other states with pro-CSA sentiment; this meant ppl could be arrested w/o being informed of charges against them</li>
<li>during war, ~ 13,000 arrested on suspicion of aiding enemy; w/o right to habeas corpus, many held w/o trial</li>
<li>the Constitution does state that writ of habeas corpus "shall not be suspended, unless when, in cases of rebellion/invasion, public safety may require it"</li>
<li>after war, in 1866 case of Ex Parte Milligan, Supreme Court ruled that govt had acted improperly in IN where, during war, civilians were subject to military trial</li>
<li>court declared that such procedures could be used only when regular civilian courts were unavailable</li>

<h4>The draft</h4>
<li>at first, soldiers were volunteers; as need for replacements rose, both North/South resorted to laws for conscripting/drafting men into service</li>
<li>Congress' first Conscription Act, adopted March 1863, made all men ages 20-45 do military service but allowed to avoid by substitute or $300 exemption fee </li>
<li>law had fierce opposition from poorer laborers, who feared that if/when they returned to civilian life, jobs would be taken by freed slaves </li>
<li>July 1863, riots against draft erupted in NYC; mostly Irish Amer. mob attacked blacks/wealthy whites</li>
<li>~ 117 killed and then the federal troops/temporary suspension of draft restored order</li>
<h4>Political dominance of the North </h4>
<li>suspension of habeas corpus & operation of the draft were only temporary</li>
<li>far more important were long-term effects of war on balance of power b/w 2 sectional rivals, North and South</li>
<li>w/military triumph of North came new definition of nature of federal union</li>
<li>southern arguments for nullification/secession no longer issues; after war, supremacy of federal govt over states was treated as established fact</li>
<li>abolition of slavery freed slaves & gave new meaning & legitimacy to concept of Amer. democracy</li>
<li>in Gettysburg Address Nov. 19, 1863, Lincoln said the nation was "dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal"</li>
<li>Lincoln was probably alluding to Emancipation Proclamation when he spoke of war bringing "new birth of freedom"</li>
<li>fact of slavery being abolished advanced cause of democracy & inspired champions of democracy around the world</li>

<h3>Economic Change</h3>
<li>costs of war in both money & men were staggering & called for extraordinary measures by both Union & CSA legislatures</li>

<h4>Financing the war </h4>
<li>North financed war chiefly by borrowing $2.6 billion, obtained through sale of govt bonds</li>
<li>even this wasn't enough, so Congress was forced to resort to raising tariffs (Morrill Tariff of 1861), adding excise taxes, instituting first income tax</li>
<li>US Treasury also issued $430 million+ in paper currency known as Greenbacks that couldn't be redeemed in gold, which contributed to creeping inflation</li>
<li>prices in North rose by about 80% from 1861-1865</li>
<li>to manage all added revenue moving in/out of Treasury, Congress created National Banking System in 1863</li>
<li>this was the first unified banking network since Jackson vetoed recharter of Bank of the US in the 1830s</li>
<h4>Modernizing northern society </h4>
<li>in the north, workers' wages didn't keep pace with inflation</li>
<li>on the other hand, there is little doubt that aspects of modern industrial economy were accelerated by the war</li>
<li>because war placed a premium on mass production & complex organization, it sped up consolidation of North's manufacturing businesses</li>
<li>war profiteers took advantage of govt's urgent needs for military supplies to sell shoddy goods @ high prices</li> <li>fortunes made during war (whether honestly or dishonestly) produced concentration of capital in hands of a new class of millionaires, who would finance North's industrialization after war</li>
<li>Repub. politics also played major role in stimulating economic growth of North & West</li>
<li>taking advantage of wartime majority in Congress, Repubs passed ambitious economic program that included not only national banking system, but also:</li>
<h5>Morrill Tariff Act <span style="font-style:normal">1861</span></h5>
<li>raised tariff rates to increase revenue, protect Amer. manufacturers; passage initiated Repub program of high protective tariffs to help industrialists </li>
<h5>Homestead Act <span style="font-style:normal">1862</span></h5>
<li> promoted settlement of Great Plains by offering parcels of 160 acres of public land free to whoever would farm that land 5+ years </li>
<h5>Morrill Land Grant Act <span style="font-style:normal">1862</span></h5> <li>encouraged states to use sale of federal land grants to maintain agricultural & technical colleges</li>
<h5>Pacific Railway Act <span style="font-style:normal">1862</span></h5>
<li>authorized building of transcontinental railroad over northern route to link economies of CA & western territories w/eastern states</li>

<h3>Social Change</h3>

<h4>Women at work </h4>
<li>millions of men leaving occupations in fields/factories added to labors & responsibilities of women at home</li>
<li>southern & northern women stepped into labor vacuum created by the war</li>
<li>owned/operated farms & plantations by themselves or, in cities, took factory jobs normally held by men</li>
<li>women played critical role as military nurses, & volunteers in soldiers' aid societies</li>
<li>when war ended & war vets returned home, most urban women vacated jobs in govt/industry; rural women gladly accepted male assistance on the farm</li>
<li>for the women whose men never returned, or returned disabled, economic struggle continued for a lifetime</li>
<li>Civil War had at 2 permanent effects on Amer. women: <span>1</span> field of nursing was now open to women for first time (previously, hospitals employed only male doctors/nurses)<span>2</span> enormous responsibilities undertaken by women during war gave impetus to movement to obtain equal voting rights for women. (suffragists' goal wouldn't be achieved until women's efforts in another war - WWI - finally convinced male conservatives to adopt 19th Amendment) </li>

<h4>End of slavery </h4>
<li>after adoption of Thirteenth Amendment in 1865, 4 million (3.5 million in CSA states, 500,000 in border states) were "freed men"/"freed women"</li>
<li>for these ppl & their descendants, economic hardship & political oppression would continue for generations, but even so, end of slavery represented momentous step</li>
<li>slaves w/no rights were protected by Constitution, w/open-ended possibilities of freedom</li>
<li>4 yrs of total war, tragic human loss of 620,000 men, and estimated $15 billion in war costs & property losses had enormous effects on nation</li>
<li>Repubs were able to enact the probusiness Whig program that was designed to stimulate industrial & commercial growth of US</li>

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