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          <h1>Nikola Tesla</h1>
          <h2><small>Engineer, Inventor</small></h2>
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            <img class="img-responsive" alt="Nikola Tesla" src="http://hedgehogsvsfoxes.com/new/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/Na-dana%C5%A1nji-dan-umro-je-najve%C4%87i-izumitelj-Nikola-Tesla.jpg"></img>
            <div class="caption text-center">Inventor of alternating current, fluorescent tubes, x-rays, radio, remote control and even wireless communication – Nikola Tesla was a fascinating character who was an electrical and mechanical engineer, visionary, futurist and somewhat of a mad scientist.        
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          <h4>Here`s a time line of Nikola Tesla's life:</h4>
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        <ul>  
            <li><b>1856: </b> He was born in July, 10th, 1856 to a Serbian family in Smiljan near Gospić, Lika, (the Military Frontier of Austria-Hungary, now in Croatia).</li><br>
            <li><b>1863: </b>Tesla's Older Brother Dies</li><br>
            <li><b>1870: </b>Tesla Moves To Karlovac, Croatia and graduates a year early from "Higher Real Gymnasium"</li><br>
            <li><b>1873: </b><u>Tesla Contracts Cholera</u>: He is bedridden for 9 months and was near death many times.Tesla's father agreed to send him to an engineering school if he recovered from the illness.</li><br>
            <li><b>1875: </b>Tesla Attends College at the Austrian Polytechnic School in Graz</li><br>
            <li><b>1878: </b>Tesla Moves To Maribor, Slovenia. He took his first job as a draftsman for a local engineering firm and he spent his spare time in a pub called Happy Peasant where he played chess and cards.</li><br>
            <li><b>1879: </b><u>Tesla is Deported</u>: Was reported to Maribor police because he did not have a residence permit then was deported to Gospić under police guard.<br>
            <u>Tesla's Father Die</u>: Milutin Tesla, contracts an unspecified illness and dies at age 60.<br>
            Tesla taught a large class of students in his old school, the "Real Gymnasium" in Gospić but did not want this to be his future.</li><br>
            <li><b>1880: </b>Tesla's uncles, Petar and Pavle, came for him and put together enough money to help him to escape from Gospić. Tesla travelled to Prague, but arrived too late to enroll in Karl-Ferdinand University. Even if Tesla had arrived early enough, he would have not been permitted to enroll as he had never taken Greek and did not speak or write Czech.</li><br>
            <li><b>1881: </b><u>Tesla Works in Budapeste</u>: Within a few months, the Budapest Telephone Exchange became operational and Tesla was assigned the position of Chief Electrician. During his employment, Tesla made numerous improvements to the equipment and developed an amplifier device.</li><br>
            <li><b>1882: </b>Tesla, obsessed with solving the riddle of A.C., suffers a mental breakdown and isn't expected to live. A short time later, Tesla begins to recover and during a walk in the Varosliget city park of Budapest with friend Anthony Szigety, the solution comes to Tesla in a vision. In his recollection of the event, Tesla states that he looked at the setting sun and began to recite a passage from Goethe's Faust. At that very moment the idea came to him in a flash and he drew a diagram of the motor in the sand with a stick.<br>
            Tesla and his good friend Anthony Szigety accepted positions with the Continental Edison Company, which had recently been started in Paris.</li><br>
            <li><b>1883: </b>On assignment by Continental Edison Company, Tesla was sent to Strasbourg, France to repair a new D.C. lighting system installed at the German Railway company which was damaged on a trial run. The government approved the job after the repairs, but Tesla never received the compensation he was promised for the work.<br>
            Tesla demonstrates newly completed A.C. induction motor before Mr. Bauzin, former mayor of Strasbourg, and several potential investors. They watched the motor with interest, but it was apparent they did not understand the value of the invention.</li><br>
            <li><b>1884: </b><u>Tesla Arrives in New York</u>: In the spring, Tesla, with funds provided by Uncles Petar and Pajo, packed his gear and caught the next boat for America. His trip didn't start too smoothly because his ticket, money and some of his luggage were stolen but he was not deterred. He arrived in New York a few weeks later with four cents in his pocket, a few poems and remnants of his belongings.<br>
            <u>Tesla Meets Edison</u>: He was quoted as calling Tesla "a damn good man." While Tesla worked for Edison he installed and repaired incandescent and arc lamps, reassembled D.C. generators and designed twenty-four different types of machines that became standards replacing original Edison designs.</li><br>
            <li><b>1885: </b><u>Tesla Electric Light Company</u>: Investors approached Tesla and asked him to develop an improved arc lighting system. Although this was not the opportunity he had hoped for, the group was willing to finance the Tesla Electric Light Company in Rahway, New Jersey. The proud new owner set to work and invented a unique arc lamp of beautiful design and efficiency. After completing the work, Tesla was forced out of the company and left with nothing but worthless stock certificates. Tesla later referred to this as "the hardest blow" he'd ever received.<br> 
            <u>Tesla Quits Edison:</u> At some point during Tesla's employment, Edison promises to pay him $50,000 if he can improve the performance of Edison's D.C. dynamo. Tesla succeeds beyond Edison's expectations, but he reneges on his promise to pay Tesla. Edison is quoted as stating to Tesla, "You don't understand our American humor." Deeply hurt, Tesla resigns. Some accounts state that Edison offers Tesla a raise if he will reconsider but Tesla declined.</li><br>
            <li><b>1886: </b><u>Tesla's Winter Of Suffering</u>: Betrayed by men he trusted, Tesla considered the winter of 1886/1887 a time of "terrible headaches and bitter tears." He was forced to work as a ditch digger for $2.00 per day and questioned the value of his education.</li><br>
            <li><b>1887: </b><u>Tesla Electric Company</u>: Tesla was introduced to Alfred S. Brown, director of Western Union, and Charles F. Peck, a New York City attorney, who were sold on his alternating current system after he demonstrated his "Egg of Columbus." Tesla agreed to split his patents on a fifty-fifty basis in exchange for funding. Brown located the laboratory at 89 Liberty St. and the company filed for its first patent by the end of the month.<br>
            <u>Szigeti Comes To New York</u>: Tesla's oldest and best friend, Anthony Szigeti, landed in New York. By the end of the week he was working as Tesla's assistant at the Liberty St. lab.</li><br>
            <li><b>1888: </b><u>Tesla Sells A.C. Patents</u>: Tesla sells patents for A.C. Polyphase System to George Westinghouse for $25,000 in cash, $50,000 in notes and a royalty of $2.50 per horsepower for each motor.<br>
            <u>Travels To Pittsburgh</u>: Tesla travels to Westinghouse headquarters in Pittsburgh to finalize the contract for the A.C. Polyphase system and to help develop his motor. He stays there for around one year.</li><br>
            <li><b>1889: </b><u>Tesla Opens Grand St. Lab</u>: Upon returning to New York, Tesla located a new laboratory at 175 Grand St. There is little information known about this laboratory, but here Tesla would begin work with high frequency apparatus, wireless transmission and theories on the relationship between electromagnetic radiation and light.<br>
            <u>Tesla Returns To Europe</u>: Tesla visited Paris for the Universal Exposition and unveiling of the Eiffel Tower. While he was there he met Professor Wilhelm Bjerknes, a Norwegian physicist from the University of Stockholm. Bjerknes had replicated the work of Henrich Hertz and allowed Tesla to study his oscillator. Tesla also visited his homeland, including Smiljan, Raduc, Tomingaj and Plitivice Lakes before returning to New York.</li><br>
            <li><b>1890: </b><u>Discovers Wireless Power</u>: With high frequencies, Tesla developed some of the first neon and fluorescent illumination. He also took the first x-ray photographs. But these discoveries paled in comparison to his illuminating a vacuum tube wirelessly - having transmitted energy through the air. This was the beginning of Tesla's lifelong obsession - the wireless transmission of energy.<br>
            <u>Murderer "Westinghoused"</u>: As part of an Edison-sponsored smear campaign against Westinghouse, H.P. Brown, an Edison ally and manufacturer of electric chairs, began electrocuting animals with A.C. The process was termed "Westinghoused" and was used to demonstrate the dangers of the new technology. That same year, the state of New York convicted William Kemmler of killing his mistress with an axe and sentenced him to die in the electric chair. Edison provided his staff to assist Brown in an effort to further damage Westinghouse's public image. The execution was a total disaster and Westinghouse suffered a great blow.
            <u>Tesla Forfeits A.C. Royalties</u>: After failing to adapt to the higher frequency Westinghouse engineers required, work on the Tesla induction is abandoned. Tesla and Westinghouse renegotiate and Tesla agrees to remove the royalties clause from their contract. This was a fateful decision and a sacrifice that would haunt Tesla for the rest of his life.<br>
            <u>Tesla Opens 5th Ave. Lab</u>: There are no documented reasons for Tesla's relocation of his laboratory from Grand St. to 33-35 South 5th Ave. (now called West Broadway). Perhaps it was a more convenient location or provided more space, as the new laboratory took up the entire fourth floor of the six-story building. What is clear is that some of Tesla's greatest accomplishments occurred in this lab before it was destroyed by fire in 1895.</li><br>
            <li><b>1891: </b><u>Tesla's American Citizenship</u>: Tesla becomes an American citizen. He often told friends that he valued this citizenship more than any scientific honors he'd received.<br>
            <u>Did Tesla Discover Electrons?</u>: One could argue that Nikola Tesla was the first to discover the electron. This is evidenced by his article "Reply to J.J. Thomson's note," published on this date in "Electrical Engineer, New York." In this article, Tesla claims that his experiments prove the existence of charged particles ("small charged balls"), while J.J. Thomson denied this. It was only five years later that Thomson proved the existence of electrons using another experiment.</li><br>
            <li><b>1892: </b><u>Tesla's Mother Dies</u>: Tesla rushed to his mother's side as she lay dying, arriving from Paris hours before her death. Her last words to him were: "You've arrived, Nidžo, my pride." Tesla's mother died on the Easter Sunday at one o'clock in the morning and was buried later that day beside her husband at the Jasikovac cemetery in Divoselo, Croatia. After her death, Tesla fell ill. He spent two to three weeks recuperating in Gospić and the village of Tomingaj near Gračac, a village in the southern part of Lika, Croatia, his mother's birthplace.</li><br>
            <li><b>1893: </b> Tesla lectures in many places, such as Philadelphia, St. Louis, Chicago.<br>
            <u>Columbian Exposition</u>: In 1892 George Westinghouse won the contract to power the Columbian Exposition. The Westinghouse company, with Tesla's guidance, built a power system for the exposition that produced three times more energy than was being utilized by the entire remainder of Chicago. Tesla had a large display including phosphorescent lighting (a precursor to fluorescent lamps) powered without wires by high-frequency fields and the Egg of Columbus. The success of the Tesla Polyphase System installed at the exposition ensured Westinghouse would be selected to harness Niagara.</li><br>  
            <li><b>1894: </b><u>First Book About Tesla</u>: Thomas Commerford Martin, editor of "Electrical World" and vice-president of the AIEE published the first book on Tesla's research. "The Inventions, Researches and Writings of Nikola Tesla" is a comprehensive compilation of Tesla's work with many illustrations.</li><br>
            <li><b>1895: </b><u>5th Ave. Lab Burns</u>: A fire broke out in the basement of 33-35 South 5th Ave. (now West Broadway) and swept through the entire structure, including Tesla's laboratory, which occupied the entire fourth floor of the six-story building. All of his hundreds of invention models, plans, notes, laboratory data, tools, photographs, valued at $50,000, were destroyed. Tesla is quoted by "The New York Times" as saying, "I am in too much grief to talk. What can I say?"<br>
            After fire destroyed the 5th Ave. lab, Tesla was allowed to use Thomas Edison's workshop at Llewellyn Park, New Jersey, but this was only a temporary solution. Within a few weeks, Tesla had rented a laboratory below Greenwich Village, near Chinatown, at 46 and 48 Houston St. This building is now the home of Soho Billiards.</li><br>
            <li><b>1899: </b><u>Terrestrial Stationary Waves</u>: Tesla claimed discovery of a new geo-electrical phenomenon, which he said would allow for the transport of electricity around the world. Terrestrial stationary waves were first observed by Tesla and formed the basis for his wireless energy transfer plans and wireless communications.<br>
            <u>Tesla Listens To The Stars</u>: Working late one night on his powerful and sensitive radio receiver, Tesla observed strange rhythmic pulses on the receiver. He concluded that there was no possible explanation other than some effort was being made to communicate with Earth by creatures from another planet. Tesla reveals the discovery and is highly criticized.</li><br>
            <li><b>1901: </b><u>Marconi Succeeds</u>: Tesla rival, Guglielmo Marconi, succeeds in sending the first radio transmission across the Atlantic Ocean. The Morse code signal for the letter "s" traveled more than 2,000 miles from Poldhu in Cornwall, England, to Newfoundland, Canada.</li><br>
            <li><b>1904: </b><u>Colorado Springs Lab Torn Down</u>: The Colorado Springs power company sued Tesla for electricity used at that experimental station. Tesla's Colorado laboratory is torn down and is sold for lumber to pay the $180 judgment; his electrical equipment is put in storage.</li><br>
            <li><b>1909: </b><u>Marconi Wins Nobel For Radio</u>: The 1909 Nobel Prize for physics is shared between Guglielmo Marconi and Karl Ferdinand Braun "in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy." Tesla is furious and intensifies his long battle to correct the injustice.</li><br>
            <li><b>1915: </b><u>Sharing Nobel Prize Articles</u>: "The New York Times," followed by other prominent news sources, carried a story, based upon a Reuters dispatch from London, stating that Tesla and Edison were to share the Nobel Prize in physics. Both Tesla and Edison told reporters they had received no official notification of the award. A few days later the Nobel Committee announced that the prize for physics would, in fact, be shared by Professor William Henry Bragg of the University of Leeds, England and his son. The committee did not deny that Tesla and Edison were the first choices, but never made public the true reason for the change. Some speculate that either Tesla or Edison or both refused to share the prize with the other.<br>   
            <u>Wardenclyffe Deed Surrendered</u>: In order to keep a roof over his head, Tesla had given two mortgages on Wardenclyffe to George C. Boldt, proprietor of the Waldorf-Astoria, to secure payment of hotel bills amounting to almost $19,000.00. Tesla requested that they not be recorded, fearing that all his projects would be destroyed if the matter became public. He was unable to make any payments at all, and was forced to sign the deed over to Waldorf-Astoria, Inc., through a silent intermediary.</li><br>
            <li><b>1916: </b><u>Tesla Declares Bankruptcy</u>: Even though Tesla had some minor successes, he continued to fall deeper and deeper into debt primarily due to his high overhead. He was called into the state supreme court for $935.00 in unpaid taxes on the Wardenclyffe property. Under oath before Justice Finch, Tesla revealed that he was essentially penniless and owned no real assets. "New York World" ran an embarrassing article exposing Tesla's financial crisis.</li><br>
            <li><b>1917: </b><u>Tesla Receives Edison Medal</u>: Originally rejecting the offer of the AIEE's highest award, Tesla reconsiders and accepts after being encouraged by Bernard A. Behrend. During the introduction, Tesla disappears and is later found at the library feeding his beloved pigeons. He is persuaded to return and gives his acceptance speech.<br> 
            <u>Tesla Envisions Radar</u>: In the August 1917 edition of "Electrical Experimenter" magazine, Tesla stated, "For instance, by their (standing electromagnetic waves) use we may produce at will, from a sending station, an electrical effect in any particular region of the globe; (with which) we may determine the relative position or course of a moving object, such as a vessel at sea, the distance traversed by the same, or its speed."</li><br>
            <li><b>1922: </b><u>Tesla's Favorite Pigeon Dies</u>: Tesla had many pigeons he fed and cared for, but one, he was particularly fond of. He described it as being a beautiful female bird, pure white with light gray tips on its wings. One night the bird flew into Tesla's room at Hotel St. Regis, and he perceived that she was attempting to tell him she was dying. Tesla said a light came from her eyes more intense than he had ever produced by the most powerful lamps in his laboratory. The bird then died and Tesla said that at that same moment, something went out of his life and he knew his life's work was finished.</li><br>
            <li><b>1925: </b><u>Katharine Johnson Dies</u>: Katharine McMahon Johnson was, according to some accounts, the only woman Tesla ever loved. She was the wife of Tesla's lifelong friend, Robert Underwood Johnson. Though the two often exchanged flirtatious letters, their relationship was totally platonic. Not forgetting Tesla even at death, she charged Robert to keep in close touch with him always.</li><br>
            <li><b>1931: </b><u>Tesla Turns 75</u>: Tesla, on his 75th birthday, received many congratulatory letters from prominent scientists, including Albert Einstein.<br>
            <u>Edison Dies At 84</u>: Tesla's most prominent adversary, Thomas Alva Edison, dies in in his home, "Glenmont" in Llewellyn Park in West Orange, New Jersey, at the age of 84.</li><br>
            <li><b>1937: </b><u>Marconi Dies At Age 63</u>: Marconi died in Rome following a series of heart attacks and Italy held a state funeral for him. As a tribute, all radio stations throughout the world observed two minutes of silence. His remains are housed in the Villa Griffone at Sasso Marconi, Emilia-Romagna, which assumed that name in his honor in 1938.<br>
            <u>A Weapon To End War</u>: Tesla, realizing war was imminent, composed a treatise entitled "The Art of Projecting Concentrated Non-dispersive Energy through the Natural Media" concerning a charged particle beam weapon. The document was published in an attempt to expound on the technical description of a "super weapon that would put an end to all war." Tesla tried to interest the U.S. War Department and European allies, but none were willing to make the investment required to build the device.</li><br>
            <li><b>1942: </b><u>A Visit From King Peter II</u>: In his diaries "A King's Heritage," the young Peter II writes: "I visited Dr. Nikola Tesla, in his apartment in the Hotel New Yorker. After I had greeted him, the aged scientist said, 'It is my greatest honor. I am glad you are in your youth, and I am content that you will be a great ruler. I believe I will live until you come back to a free Yugoslavia. From your father you have received his last words: "Guard Yugoslavia." I am proud to be a Serbian and a Yugoslav. Our people cannot perish. Preserve the unity of all Yugoslavs - the Serbs, the Croats, and Slovenes."</li><br>
            <li><b>1943: </b><u>Tesla Dies At 86</u>: Tesla died quietly and alone in room #3327 on the 33rd floor of the Hotel New Yorker in New York City. The coroner would later estimate the time of death at 22:30 EST. Tesla was 86 years old.<br>
            <u>Maid Finds Tesla Dead</u>: Tesla had placed a "do not disturb" sign on his door on January 5th, 1943. Ignoring the sign, maid Alice Monaghan entered the room to find Tesla dead in his bed. Assistant Medical Examiner H. W. Wembly was called to the scene and after examination of the body, gave his opinion that the cause of death had been coronary thrombosis and that there had been no suspicious circumstances. Tesla's body was taken to the Frank E. Campbell Funeral Home at Madison Ave. and 81st St. A sculptor was commissioned by Hugo Gernsback, a long-time friend and supporter of Tesla, to create a death mask which is now displayed in the Nikola Tesla Museum.</li><br>
            <li><b>1945: </b><u>U.S. Air Force "Project Nick"</u>: Just after World War II, there was a renewed interest in beam weapons. Copies of Tesla's papers on particle beam weaponry were sent to Patterson Air Force Base in Dayton, Ohio. An operation code-named "Project Nick" was heavily funded and placed under the command of Brigadier General L. C. Craigie to test the feasibility of Tesla's concept. Details of the experiments were never published, and the project was apparently discontinued. But something peculiar happened. The copies of Tesla's papers disappeared, and no one knows what happened to them.</li><br> 
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          <blockquote class="blockquote-reverse">
            <p>"I don`t care tha they stole my ideia, I care that they don`t have any of their own."</p>
            <cite class="small">Nikola Tesla</cite>
          </blockquote>
          <p class="text-center">Learn more about this brilliant engineer, inventor and human being on <a href="https://teslauniverse.com" target="_blank">Tesla Universe</a></p>
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